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"Masks Have Profound Influence on Heart Rate, Stress" Topic

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Doc Martens from Canada31 Aug 2020 1:04 p.m. PST

Effects of wearing N95 and surgical facemasks on heart rate, thermal stress and subjective sensations

Y. Li, H. Tokura, […], and E. Newton

Therefore, it can be concluded that N95 and surgical facemasks can induce significantly different temperatures and humidity in the microclimates of facemasks, which have profound influences on heart rate and thermal stress and subjective perception of discomfort.


Prolonged use of N95 and surgical masks by healthcare professionals during COVID-19 has caused adverse effects such as headaches, rash, acne, skin breakdown, and impaired cognition


Personal logo John the OFM Supporting Member of TMP31 Aug 2020 5:12 p.m. PST

Oh, get serious.
I'm 70, and have high blood pressure.
Masks are a pain in the ass. Period.
Do I like them? No!
Will I wear them? Of course I will. I'm not a tinfoil hat wearing fool.

Personal logo John the OFM Supporting Member of TMP31 Aug 2020 5:13 p.m. PST

And I just hit the complaint button on myself, beating offended snowflakes to the punch.

Martin From Canada31 Aug 2020 5:39 p.m. PST

Yes, mask can be uncomfortable, but the current consensus is that they are worth the trade-off.

And your point?

Doc Martens from Canada31 Aug 2020 6:55 p.m. PST

Due to the SARS-CoV2 pandemic, medical face masks are widely recommended for a large number of individuals and long durations. The effect of wearing a surgical and a FFP2/N95 face mask on cardiopulmonary exercise capacity has not been systematically reported.

Spirometry showed reduced FVC, FEV1 and PEF with the surgical mask and even greater impairments with the FFP2/N95 mask. Wearing the FFP2/N95 mask resulted in a reduction of VO2max by 13% and of ventilation by 23%. These changes are consistent with an increased airway resistance [15]. Studies testing increased upper airway obstruction induced by added resistance at the mouth report similar effects on the lung functions parameter with increased breathing resistance [16]. The reduction in ventilation resulted from a lower breathing frequency with corresponding changes of the inhaling and exhaling time and a reduced tidal volume. This is in agreement with the effects of respiratory protective devices or additional external breathing resistance [16, 17]. The increased breathing resistance, which is likely higher during stress, leads to an elevated breathing work and a limitation of the ventilation. The data of this study are obtained in healthy young volunteers, the impairment is likely to be significantly greater, e.g., in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases [18]. From our data, we conclude that wearing a medical face mask has a significant impact on pulmonary parameters both at rest and during maximal exercise in healthy adults.


Medical face masks have a marked negative impact on cardiopulmonary capacity that significantly impairs strenuous physical and occupational activities. In addition, medical masks significantly impair the quality of life of their wearer. These effects have to be considered versus the potential protective effects of face masks on viral transmissions. The quantitative data of this study may, therefore, inform medical recommendations and policy makers.


Doc Martens from Canada31 Aug 2020 7:02 p.m. PST

And I just hit the complaint button on myself, beating offended snowflakes to the punch.

Well, I do not think you wrote anything to be reported over. We should all be free to express our opinions without worry of harassment or them being belittled.

These are not my opinions, by the way, they are peer-reviewed research, much of it coming from the aftermath SARS scare.

Martin From Canada31 Aug 2020 7:13 p.m. PST

And yet, you can still run a 35k wearing one.


Maybe not as comfortably as without a mask, but then again everything in life is a trade-off.
There's a reason we don't all don masks the same way we don underwear or pants. But in a pandemic, the calculus for public safety shifts.

Doc Martens from Canada31 Aug 2020 7:20 p.m. PST


I'm not sure of the point of most your posts. You did state, after all, that you only follow what others say.

However, researchers have found that about a third of the workers developed headaches with use of the mask, most had preexisting headaches that were worsened by the mask wearing, and 60% required pain medications for relief. As to the cause of the headaches, while straps and pressure from the mask could be causative, the bulk of the evidence points toward hypoxia and/or hypercapnia as the cause; a reduction in blood oxygenation (hypoxia) or an elevation in blood C02 (hypercapnia).

It is known that the N95 mask, if worn for hours, can reduce blood oxygenation as much as 20%, which can lead to a loss of consciousness, as happened to at least one individual driving around alone in his car wearing an N95 mask. This caused him to pass out, and to crash his car. I am sure that we have several cases of elderly individuals or any person with poor lung function passing out, hitting their head. This, of course, can lead to death.

A more recent study involving 159 healthcare workers aged 21 to 35 years of age found that 81% developed headaches from wearing a face mask. Some had pre-existing headaches that were precipitated by the masks. All felt like the headaches affected their work performance.

Unfortunately, no one is telling the frail elderly and those with lung diseases, such as COPD, emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis, of these dangers when wearing a mask of any kind —which can cause a severe worsening of lung function. This also includes lung cancer patients and people having had lung surgery, especially with partial resection or even the removal of an entire lung.

The importance of these findings is that a drop in oxygen levels (hypoxia) is associated with an impairment in immunity.

Studies have shown that hypoxia can inhibit the type of main immunity cells used to fight viral infections called the CD4+ T-lymphocyte. This occurs because the hypoxia increases the level of a compound called hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which inhibits T-lymphocytes and stimulates a powerful immune inhibitor cell called the Tregs. This sets the stage for contracting any infection, such as COVID-19 and making the consequences of that infection much graver.

In essence, your mask may very well put you at an increased risk of infection and if so, a much worse outcome.

Individuals with cancer, especially if the cancer has spread, will be at a further risk from prolonged hypoxia as the cancer grows best in a microenvironment that is low in oxygen. Low oxygen also promotes inflammation which can promote the growth, invasion and spread of cancers. It has been proposed that repeated episodes of hypoxia pose a significant factor in atherosclerosis and hence increases all cardiovascular (heart attacks) and cerebrovascular (strokes) diseases.

There is another danger to wearing these masks on a daily basis, especially if worn for several hours. When a person is infected with a respiratory virus, they will expel some of the virus with each breath. If they are wearing a mask, especially an N95 mask or other tightly fitting mask, they will be constantly rebreathing the viruses, raising the concentration of the virus in the lungs and the nasal passages. It has been said that people who have the worst reactions to the coronavirus have the highest concentrations of the virus early on. Apparently this leads to the deadly cytokine storm in a selected number.

Newer evidence even suggests that in some cases the virus can enter the brain. In most instances it enters the brain by way of the olfactory nerves (smell nerves), which connect directly with the area of the brain dealing with recent memory and memory consolidation. It is stated that wearing a mask, the exhaled viruses would concentrate in the nasal passages, enter the olfactory nerves and therefore travel into the brain.

Nick Bowler31 Aug 2020 8:47 p.m. PST


Nurses sick of people complaining about masks.

CCollins01 Sep 2020 2:30 a.m. PST

All those Ex soldiers who had to do route marches in full kit and respirators must be rolling their eyes in the background.

Doc Martens from Canada01 Sep 2020 5:45 a.m. PST

During the COVID-19 pandemic, public health experts began telling us to follow a number of disease mitigation strategies that sounded reasonably scientific, but actually had little or no support in the scientific literature. Community wearing of masks was one of the more dangerous recommendations from our confused public health experts.


Gwydion01 Sep 2020 5:58 a.m. PST

Same article as Nick Bowler:

Nurses thinking 'when is this ever going to end' because of the physical pain of wearing PPE.

Nurses admitting people are afraid of coming to hospital because of Covid media hype and presenting in advanced stages of illness like sepsis that could have been easily treated if they had not been scared off.

Nurses admitting patients with mental health issues are scare of those treating them now those workers are rigged up like their worst nightmares.

And is your argument- nurses are suffering so must we all suffer? Their situation is totally different. They are in an enclosed environment which is purposely concentrating infected and vulnerable people. Not the case for most of us in our everyday lives.

As for soldiers – good for them – I could do it when I was in my twenties and thirties. What relevance has that for the majority who can't?

The evidence continues to be unclear that masks are a significant benefit in real world everyday conditions, and their use may be counterproductive in instilling a false sense of security in wearers and those around them.

Doc Martens from Canada01 Sep 2020 5:59 a.m. PST

Jogger's lung collapses after he ran for 2.5 miles while wearing a face mask

The 26-year-old resident, known by his alias Zhang Ping, was rushed to the Wuhan Central Hospital on May 7 after he became breathless and started suffering severe chest pain.

The doctors found that Mr Zhang's left lung was punctured and shrunk by 90 per cent. They believed the condition was caused by the high pressure in the man's organ due to the fact that he carried out intense exercising while wearing a mask.


Two Chinese boys drop dead during PE lessons while wearing face masks amid concerns over students' fitness following three months of school closure


Doc Martens from Canada01 Sep 2020 6:09 a.m. PST

As for soldiers – good for them – I could do it when I was in my twenties and thirties. What relevance has that for the majority who can't?

It really has no relevance.

We wore them for limited time periods. Not day in and day out.

NBC equipment is also quite a bit different than face masks, surgical or otherwise.

A healthy intensivist (SF), wearing such a respirator (Tecnol Fluidshield PFR95, Kimberly Clark Corporation, Roswell, GA) to perform a percutaneous tracheostomy on a patient with multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis, experienced dyspnoea, tachycardia and tremor after 30 min. End‐tidal carbon dioxide measured at the mouth by hand‐held capnometry was 6.3 kPa (normal value 5.3 kPa). We postulated that the symptoms were due to hypercapnia.

We measured the end‐tidal carbon dioxide levels in four anaesthetists wearing the same design of mask, before and after performing tracheal intubation on another patient with pulmonary tuberculosis. Measurements were taken by sidestream capnometer (Poet LT, Criticare, Waukesha, WI) using a 15‐mm T‐piece held between the lips. The mean baseline end‐tidal carbon dioxide level was 5.18 kPa. Post‐procedure (20 min later) the mean end‐tidal carbon dioxide level was 5.95 kPa (p = 0.007).

The rise in end‐tidal carbon dioxide is due to rebreathing of expired alveolar gas that is ‘trapped' in the respirator, with the degree of rebreathing being proportional to the volume of the respirator (‘dead space'). It is likely that all tight‐fitting, high efficiency respirators will behave similarly, with only the size of dead space varying between designs.

The respiratory response to hypercapnia is an increase in minute ventilation, giving rise to the sensation of dyspnoea. Moderate (6.18 kPa) to high (7.5 kPa) levels of end‐tidal carbon dioxide have also been shown to impair significantly cognitive and psychomotor performance


Personal logo Silurian Supporting Member of TMP01 Sep 2020 6:28 a.m. PST

I'm not sure the point of these persistent posts.
Are you saying, yes we should wear masks but be aware of certain potential disadvantages. Like say, potential bruising if you wear a seatbelt.
Or are you saying, I don't believe we should wear masks.

Doc Martens from Canada01 Sep 2020 6:34 a.m. PST

Are you saying, yes we should wear masks but be aware of certain potential disadvantages. Like say, potential bruising if you wear a seatbelt.
Or are you saying, I don't believe we should wear masks.

Having a good base of knowledge is critical in making any decisions.

I'm not recommending wearing masks, nor am I not recommending wearing masks. Risks must be evaluated using facts, not fear (or coercion).

fantasque01 Sep 2020 12:01 p.m. PST

All that research and reading, yet you have no opinion on the subject Wmyers? That is a surprise. Seems a bit of a waste of time posting all this information. If you cannot reach a conclusion then how do you expect others to?

Doc Martens from Canada01 Sep 2020 12:22 p.m. PST

Well, Douglas, perhaps you would like to share your conclusion.

deephorse02 Sep 2020 1:47 a.m. PST

In my country it is nigh on impossible for the general public to get their hands on a N95 mask, so warnings about what they might do to you are pretty much irrelevant. For reasons I won't go into, I have access to FFP2, FFP3 RD, and three-ply cotton masks with a removable filter.

I have followed my government's guidelines (and law), and have worn all types when required. The FFP3 seemed to retain the water vapour I exhaled as liquid water and became quite uncomfortable fairly quickly. The three-ply cotton mask absorbed the water vapour, and whilst it became a bit damp over time, it was by far the most comfortable to wear.

My conclusion is that, since they are law, I will follow the regulations set out by my government (even though they are probably the most incompetent bunch of politicians that have ever been in control of my country).

WillBGoode Supporting Member of TMP02 Sep 2020 12:36 p.m. PST

After reading some of these comments all I can think of is this classic movie line:

"Mr. Madison, what you have just said is one of the most insanely idiotic things I have ever heard. At no point in your rambling, incoherent response were you even close to anything that could be considered a rational thought. Everyone in this room is now dumber for having listened to it. I award you no points, and may God have mercy on your soul."

Personal logo McKinstry Supporting Member of TMP Fezian02 Sep 2020 1:41 p.m. PST

The average person has no need nor business wearing an N-95. N-95's are for healthcare workers and if as a healthcare worker you're wearing one you are either in the presence of Covid or suspect the presence or unknown risk. Since only a cretin could be wearing an N-95 in the presence of Covid and not experience stress and discomfort, I find that study to be right up there with identifying water as wet.

When we see a patient as an EMT we give them a cheap surgical mask because an N-95 may actually restrict the breathing and it is not necessary for them.

N-95's are dense, uncomfortable and have a tendency to fog glasses and faceshields. No recommendation exists anywhere for the general public to wear an N-95. A simple cloth or paper mask is more comfortable and as far as I've heard, satisfies any and all public mandates.

I have a plentiful supply of N-95's but when not working actively on a patient but needing to be in proximity to others, I wear a simple cloth or paper mask because it is more comfortable and way easier to deal with.

fantasque03 Sep 2020 4:48 a.m. PST

Thanks for asking
My conclusion/opinion is that wearing a mask when in indoor public spaces is a common sense precaution, shows respect and concern for the health and feelings of my fellow citizens, and I would recommend others to do likewise.
What's yours?

The Dozing Dragon Sponsoring Member of TMP04 Sep 2020 7:32 a.m. PST

If you don't like breathing through a mask, try breathing through a ventilator. A mask protects a little. Both the user and those around them. If those around you are also wearing masks then there is greater protection. No, I don't like wearing them but do I? Yes.

Basha Felika04 Sep 2020 9:21 a.m. PST

Fantasque summed it up far better than I could.

fantasque05 Sep 2020 12:56 a.m. PST

Thanks Charles.

Doc Martens from Canada05 Sep 2020 8:55 a.m. PST


It has changed after doing this research. After reading these reports and the obvious negative potential – especially for children, elderly and "compromised" – I think only wearing a mask for a short period of time (ie I have always been a proponent of wearing a mask when giving tattoos, surgery) is one thing but wearing them all day, every day and exercising in them is quite another.

Mr Elmo06 Sep 2020 4:06 a.m. PST

The mask controversy has several facets:

1) Masks, studied in a lab under perfect conditions. Yeah, I think they work.
2) Masks, as actually worn, around your neck or over your hipster beard. Totally useless.
3) Mask mandates as laws created by the executive branch without involving the various legislatures and generally trampling on and idea the of "checks and balances"
4) Masks, worn for the 30 seconds it takes to get to your dinner table: like why?

I wear one as little as possible "Worn by force, not by fear"

fantasque06 Sep 2020 6:00 a.m. PST

Thanks Wymers
I am in the UK and I have not heard of anyone proposing "wearing them all day, every day" or "exercising in them". The advice here is to wear them when you are in close proximity to other people to reduce the chance of becoming infected or of infecting others.
Is default long term use in other circumstances something that is being proposed in the US? I have not heard or read that.

Doc Martens from Canada07 Sep 2020 7:28 a.m. PST


That is exactly what is being mandated in many areas. Such as schools and work places (and gyms).

An healthy adult (ie the marathon runner Martin linked to) is completely different than an average ordinary person, let alone a child/youth growing and developing and being sedentary for the last 6 months. (schools closed here early/mid March)

fantasque07 Sep 2020 10:35 p.m. PST

Do you have some links you can share?

Doc Martens from Canada08 Sep 2020 6:10 p.m. PST

Beyond the ones above? (for the negative effects)

Or ones on masks in schools and gyms?

14Bore18 Sep 2020 1:14 p.m. PST

There are states that have mandatory mask wearing anywhere outside. I absolutely refuse outside to wear one ( and actually last couple months getting away with just my face shield and not one person has questioned it. I am keeping my gas mask in the truck for that person who does.
If you want

Doc Martens from Canada18 Sep 2020 9:08 p.m. PST

Excellent link.

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