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"forces at Battle of Barcelona, July 1936" Topic

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Makhno191827 Dec 2018 7:28 p.m. PST

Hi all,
Wanted to share some research I've been doing (in case its somehow ever helpful to anyone else, or maybe just interesting) and ask if anyone has additional information. Below is a list of all the armed groups that I've found engaged in the street battles for Barcelona at the start of the SCW (so, active July 18-20th, 1936, sources at the end). I've not included the workers' unions forces, which were adhoc at this point, though if anyone knows of photos of specific unions' barricades or their headquarters/halls before or during the street fighting, it would be helpful. This is just the basic info, if anyone wants more details about specific things let me know, I have more to share (especially about the action itself). I'm planning to do similar research for some early aspects of the Aragon front as well as the Durruti Column's time in Madrid.

What I'm missing that'd be useful to modelers and war gamers would be information about uniforms/headgear, flags or special unit markers, weapons/equipment, vehicles, etc. If anyone has any of that info to add, or knows of good places to research specific Spanish military units pre-war (as all this changes as the SCW begins), I'd be happy to hear it.

Lastly, I apologize for the mix of English, Spanish, and Catalan…

1. "Regiment d'Infanteria Badajoz, num 10" listed in the same book (Atles de Guerrra Civil a Catalunya) as "13é Regiment d'Infanteria (Badajoz)."
Barracks: Caserna del Bruc (Infanteria) Pedralbes/Bruc Barracks, Carrer l'Exèrcit, 7, 08034
Command: Com. J. López-Amor, Cap. E López Belda
Action: One section, led by Cap López Belda, fought at the Brecha san Pau, and the docks barracks/columbus statue area, survivors surrendering around 8pm when those barracks fell. Com. J. López-Amor led a second group from University Plaza into Plaza de Cataluña, there set up 4 MGs in 4 corners and fired a 75mm cannon, (maybe French, Canon de 75 modèle 1897? From 7é Regiment Lleuger d'Artilleria?) at the Telefonica building. Workers and assault guards use barricades and subway lines to defeat infantry. López-Amor arrested by assault guards in front of Casino Militar. Defeated by swarms of workers and police around 4pm.

2. "Regiment de Cavalleria Montesa, núm 10." listed in the same book (Atles) as "Regiment de Cavaleria Montesa núm. 4."
Barracks: Caserna de Numancia/Tarragona
Command: Coronel Pedro Escalera Hasperué, (Comandant Manuel Mejias de la Cuesta?), Comandant Luis Gilbert de la Cuesta, Tin. cor. Mejía de la Fuente, Cap. Santos Villalón Pérez
Action: Leaving at 4:15am, three squadrons of about fifty men each proceeded on foot, with machine guns installed on cars. One to Plaça Espanya, another to Plaça Universidad, and the third through Brecha San Pau (using a shield of women and children), though stopped from reaching the Capitania by workers, who defeated them by 2pm.

3. Regiment d'Artilleria de Muntanya, núm 1.
Barracks: Caserna del Docks, Icaria Avenue
Command: Major Fernández Unzué, Cap López Varela, Cap E. Sancho Contreras, Cap Francisco Alba Álvarez
Action: Deliver artillery by truck to Place Universidad, Correus i Telégrafs, and Conselleria de Governació. One column saw action Plaça Espanya, another by the Palaces (retreated to Barracks, where a siege ensued)
-Question: What artillery pieces did they use? How did they transport them?

4. Batalló de Sapadors Minadors (mining sappers), núm 4.
barracks: Caserna Lepant, Gran Vía
command: Tinent Coronel Antonio Navarro Serrano, Cap. Jose M. Brusés Danis
action: 4:30am marched to Plaza de España, through Brecha San Pau, defeated assault guards under Escofet by Columbus statue and took positions at Atarazanas and the majority in the Military Office Building. Defeated when those buildings fell the next day.

5. Infanteria Alcántara, núm. 34.
Barracks: Caserna de Jaune (Alcántara barracks,) though distributed to barracks and areas across city (such as Castell de Montjuïc) before the rising.
Command: (of various sections in dispersed localities) Cap. A. de Ibarra Montís, Cap. J. Maeztu Fernández, Cap. F. Pulido Leal
Action: Some defeated at Docks, others fail to occupy Radio Barcelona at Number 12 Caspe Street. and defeated at Urquinaona Plaza, survivors shelter in the Hotel Ritz, where they surrendered after artillery fire.

6. 7é Regiment Lleuger d'Artilleria (light artillery)
Barracks (spread throughout city, Caserna de Sant Andreu, Caserna de Drassanes, Dependéncies Militars, Caserna de Sant Andreu:
Command: Cor. S. Cañadas Valdés, Cor. José llanas Quintillá, Cap. Fernando Dasi Hernandez, Cap. Guillermo (Reinlein) Heinlein Calzada, Cap. Regalado Sanz, Cap. A. Urniza López
Action: Defend area around Drassanes and Dependencia, others fought nearby Plaça Catalunya where they were defeated, one of their cannons use by workers on the Montesa Cavalry Regiment at Plaça Catalunya, and later against the Captania (they rolled the thing by hand!).
Equipment: trucks, draft animals (horses?), and 75mm/7.5cm cannons, maybe French, Canon de 75 modèle 1897?

7. Seu de la 4a Divisió Orgánica (Headquarters of the 4th Organic (?) Division)/Nationalist command.
HQ: Capitania, Carrer San Pau
Command: General Llano de la Encomienda,(loyal), then General Goded.
Action: fired upon by cannons captured at Av. d'Icària and Carrer Claris (near Plaça Catalunya), 40 blasts and then they surrendered.

8. Regiment de Cavalleria Santiago, núm. 9. aka Girona Cavalry
Barracks: Caserna Girona on Lepant carrer.
Command: Alvero Fernandez Burriel, Guillermo Rico Ruiz, Cor. Francisco Lacasa Burgos (Regiment num 3)
Action: Battle at Cinc d'Oros, fall back to Convent de les Carmelites, fortify with 3 machine guns. Civil Guards sent to attack instead join them there. Fell the next day in a blood bath of workers' rage.

9. Assault Guards saw action all over the city, mostly in the service of the Republic. (I have many notes, but they're a mess).
Grup 15a and 16a

10. Civil Guards: fought for the Republic mostly when forced to by workers and/or Assault Guards.
Command: Colonel Antonio Escobar Huertas
Action: Saw much action at Plaças Catalunya and Espanol, by Palaces, oversaw surrender of Carmelites soldiers.

11. 4t Grup Divisionari d'Intendéncia "Quartermaster troops"
HQ: "Dipósits i magatzems de l'exercit" (Deposits and stores of the army)
Command: Antonio Sanz Neira
Action: Marched between Civil Guard groups to ensure their loyalty on the way to Plaça Catalunya.
Otherwise, I have almost no information about them.

-Altes de la Guerra Civil a Catalunya. by Victor Hurtado, Antoni Segura, Joan Villarroya i Font
-Durruti in the Spanish Revolution. by Abel Paz
-Barricades in Barcelona: The CNT from the victory of July 1936 to the necessary defeat of May 1937 – Agustín Guillamón
-De coup van 1936 in Barcelona – verslag van ooggetuige (eyewitness report of) Albert Helman

Mike O08 Jan 2019 3:14 p.m. PST

Phew! Great piece of research and sources, especially that one about the barricades that I hadn't come across before (meant to reply earlier with some additional sources you might find useful but the holiday period took me away – watch this space)

Thanks for sharing!

Makhno191809 Jan 2019 6:25 a.m. PST

Thanks Mike, i will keep checking back and i look forward to it. Im planning a couple dioramas, one for Placa Catalunya and the area around the Columbus statue, which will be a real challenge for me, so I'll be bringing many questions.

Makhno191804 Feb 2019 5:40 p.m. PST

Found these pictures today of the Badajoz infantry regiment (I can only assume, based on time and location) taken by a hiker at 5:30am, July 19 in Placa Catalunya. Looks like one of the Assault Guards who were "fratenizing" with them standing in front. I was a little surprised to see them in helmets, the other shots I've seen of the army on that day have caps. Im not very knowledgable on uniforms, gear etc so I'd love to hear if you guys have any thoughts.


Heres the website for more info:

Gerard Leman07 Feb 2019 1:06 p.m. PST

Makhono, the uniforms seem to be standard for the Spanish Army, c. 1936, and the Assault Guard also seems to be in regulation uniform, albeit, the photo is of poor quality. This is not surprising since 1936 marks the beginning of the war, and uniforms and items of equipment would not have worn out yet. I'm also not surprised at the Assault Guard "fraternizing" with troops. Asaltos fought on both sides.

Makhno191808 Feb 2019 8:18 p.m. PST

Thanks! Yes, and these particular troops had been given booze and sent into placa catalunya thinking they were on parade for the occasion of the workers olympics, and shouting "viva la republic". Assault Guards later used the subway lines and stations to fight for the placa against the army while workers barricaded side streets and fought from the top floors of the telephone exchange. Later, as Guardia civil arrived to help out down the army, the anarchists stormed the exchange while POUMistas took the Hotel Colon across the square.

Something I recently noticed in the photo above (here's the link again) link
In the top photo, I swear there's a white or light colored horse over the assault guard's right shoulder. If I squint I can sort of see a wooden wagon behind him but it's such bad quality hard to tell if I'm imagining. Any guesses as to the role of this lone horse?

Mike O10 Feb 2019 6:00 a.m. PST

Been pulling together a bunch of sources that hopefully will be of use – sorry for delay.

1) One of my main go-to books has been the invaluable "La Ultima Cruzada" sourcebook by Bob Cordery

Now in its 3rd edition, at its core are the lists of data of great use to gamers and modellers. There's a breakdown of all the main combat units that made up the Spanish Army at the outbreak of hostilities – both the Peninsular Army and the Army of Africa as well as foreign troops and police/security units. It lists the main weapons in use from small arms up to heavy artillery. Also similar data for the navy and air force. It then covers, in the same accessible fashion, all the units that sprang up during the war on both sides, together with the varied array of weaponry that found its way from abroad. Additionally there are brief summaries of the political factions, leading figures, events and uniforms as well as a bibliography. Should also note that Bob is active here on TMP under the nick "Bob the Temple Builder".

2) The standard work on uniforms has still got be "Uniformes Militares de la Guerra Civil Española" by Jose M. Bueno. Don't know if you're familiar with the old Blandford uniform books but it follows a similar format with loads of colour plates accompanied by captions (last edition also had English captions) together with photos, rank markings and other insignia and some flags. A word of caution – coverage of the Nationalist side is much more reliable (he dedicates the book to Franco…)

3) For flags there is the rainbow-hued "La Guerra Civil y sus Banderas 1936-1939" by Juan Manuel Peña Lopez and Jose Luis Alonso Gonzalez. HUGE number of colour plates. As noted before in a previous discussion, some seem a bit dubious in sourcing. For example here is a Durruti Column flag from the book with very sloppy lettering:


…and here is what it was based upon – not a frontline flag at all but a funeral parade banner with quite neat lettering (top right is AIT – Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores).


Then there is that so-called anarchist "Brtish Battalion" flag included in this book discussed before (plate 349). The caption footnote references '"Cronica de la Guerra Civil Española", 6 tomas Buenos Aires 1966' so make of that what you will. A similar odd anarchist banner with dubious bolshevik hammer-and-sickle motif (plate 344) is referenced to "Bandiere della Guerra de Spagna" – Franco Scandaluzzi 1987.

4) Abel Paz has another book "Durruti: The People Armed" which has additional information you may find useful.

5) "Barricades in Barcelona" is very interesting but something it cried out for was a map showing the location of the strategic buildings and barricades mentioned in the text. I don't have that for July '36 but "The May Days Barcelona 1937" from the Freedom Press has a map for that conflict. Of course the fighting wasn't necessarily in the same areas as July '36 (eg the docklands) but still maybe useful.
(also look for it on

6) Big chunky 2 volume set "The Anarchists in the Spanish Civil War" by Robert Alexander. I only have vol 1 which covers the lead-up to and early stages of the war. Very much an academic slab of text.

7) "The Battle for Spain" by Anthony Beevor is possibly the best general history of the SCW. Very accessible and lots of military info for gamers.

8) For the wider Aragon Front as it progressed there's a free "print-it-yourself" operational level boardgame by Pablo Martin Fernández. Could be useful for generating scenarios with miniatures and the OOB research is certainly useful. Be sure to read the forum discussion which contains many rules corrections and clarifications.

9) the "Vehiculos Blindados de la Guerra Civil Española" website is a gold-mine for that aspect

10) Interesting Facebook group page here on SCW vehicles and aircraft although you have to make a "friend" request to join.

11) Barcelona July '36
YouTube link
YouTube link

12) Durruti Column at the front
YouTube link

13) The Iron Column at the front
YouTube link

14) Lastly wanted to mention Guinea Hobbies where I've obtained many excellent Spanish language books such as the Quiron Edition titles. Based in Basque country, I've found them very helpful in e-mail queries in English. Consider dropping them an e-mail with your interests and they might be able to find something not listed on their site. For instance I'm sure there used to be a book on Spanish cavalry of the 1930s but I can't find it – may have gone out-of-print.

Mike O10 Feb 2019 8:48 a.m. PST

In the top photo, I swear there's a white or light colored horse over the assault guard's right shoulder. If I squint I can sort of see a wooden wagon behind him but it's such bad quality hard to tell if I'm imagining. Any guesses as to the role of this lone horse?

Could be a pack mule for many different uses including transporting diassembled guns – have a look at this very interesting site:




Makhno191811 Feb 2019 5:30 a.m. PST

Thanks for all of this Mike, that's a lot of homework for me! Altes de la Guerra Civil a Catalunya by Victor Hurtado, Antoni Segura, Joan Villarroya i Font has the maps you were referring to. One of the army's plan for Barcelona, one of how it actually turned out, and a couple of the fight in Placa Catalunya, the docks, the action in the air, path of the Assault Guards etc. I got it through inter library loan and scanned some of those maps, I'll try to figure out where I can host the files so I can share them here. Anyway I really appreciate you sharing your research with me, it's a big help.

Mike O11 Feb 2019 7:20 a.m. PST

No problem, hope it is of some use as you've got a lot of great stuff already. BTW did you ever manage to sign up to Benno's?

Some further thoughts here:

3. Regiment d'Artilleria de Muntanya, núm 1.
Barracks: Caserna del Docks, Icaria Avenue
Command: Major Fernández Unzué, Cap López Varela, Cap E. Sancho Contreras, Cap Francisco Alba Álvarez
Action: Deliver artillery by truck to Place Universidad, Correus i Telégrafs, and Conselleria de Governació. One column saw action Plaça Espanya, another by the Palaces (retreated to Barracks, where a siege ensued)
-Question: What artillery pieces did they use? How did they transport them?

As mountain artillery, La Ultima Cruzada identifies the standard equipment as the 70mm Schneider M08 Mountain Gun (same weapon designated "Schneider 70/16 mod1908" in the links in my above post) and the 105mm Schneider M19 Mountain Howitzer.

It can be confusing identifying the bewildering array of guns and their varying designations as the Spanish produced a lot of French and German stuff under license, often rechambered to new calibres, and given new designations. For instance the standard French Schneider M19 Mountain Howitzer was actually 75mm!
(similarly the French Hotchkiss M1922 LMG was known as the Hotchkiss M1925 7mm strip-fed in Spain)

The 70mm gun could be broken down into 5 loads carried by mules and the M19 into 7 loads. However that seems unlikely for rapid deploment across the Barcelona streets so they could also be towed by horses/mules or truck or – as many seized by the workers in the newsreel show – carried on the truck flatbed portee-style as the wooden spoked wheels were weak for motor-towing. The account of the 1st Mountain Artillery Regt in "Barricades in Barcelona" seems to suggest both transport by truck and towed by "animals".

Schneider 70/16 mod1908 – sometimes the distinctive slitted shield was removed


105mm Schneider M19 Mountain Howitzer



Mike O12 Feb 2019 1:52 p.m. PST

75mm/7.5cm cannons, maybe French, Canon de 75 modèle 1897?

Basically yes but the Spanish Army designation was 75/28 M1906 and many seem to have a simplified shield like the Polish version on the Panzer Garage site

However I'm using the same excellent HaT guns and caissons you have but not many of the figures – I find them too skinny and boyish so would have to bulk areas out with green-stuff to be acceptable. The Adrian helmet was not used by the Spanish army but the Republicans got hold of a lot as the war went on.

Another book! "Arms of the Spanish Republic: A Nationalist Overview, 1938" by Jose M. Garcia notes 4 different variants of the ubiquitous French "75" in the exhibition
- Spanish 75/28 M1906
- French 75mm M1912 S designed for horse artillery
- Polish M1897 rechambered to 76.2mm
- Mexican 80mm Mondragon field gun


Mike O13 Feb 2019 1:34 p.m. PST


"Regiment d'Infanteria Badajoz, num 10" listed in the same book (Atles de Guerrra Civil a Catalunya) as "13é Regiment d'Infanteria (Badajoz)."
…..fired a 75mm cannon, (maybe French, Canon de 75 modèle 1897? From 7é Regiment Lleuger d'Artilleria?) at the Telefonica building
….. Infanteria Alcántara, núm. 34.

"La Ultima Cruzada" lists the Badajoz as the 13th Infantry Regt. and the Alcántara as the 14th. This is supported by the following Spanish wiki account (run through Google translate)

"Cruzada" only mentions infantry regiments having an MG company for each battalion as integrated heavy support but the following also mentions mortar teams and a single 70/16 mod1908 gun for each battalion.

The "España en Llamas" special for "Wargames, Soldados y Estrategia" magazine also mentions 70/16 mod1908 guns for infantry regt support but that other calibres from 65mm to 75mm could be found instead.

BTW I found a slightly better version of that photo you queried and not only is that animal confirmed but I can make out the legs of a second dark-coloured beast to the right. To my untrained eye I felt they were too big to be mules, despite the mule-like ears, but I was surprised to learn; "The mule comes in all sizes, shapes and conformations. There are mules that resemble huge draft horses, sturdy quarter horses, fine-boned racing horses, shaggy ponies and more"


Makhno191817 Feb 2019 11:14 a.m. PST

Hey Mike I see you've lost your Durruti! Thanks for all the info, I'm going to add more later once I figure out hosting the images. For now:
I did not end up on Bennos list, not sure what the issue is, but it's probably me. Im not great with computers…

I'll have to go through your book reccomendations one by one, excited to read more on the SCW.

I haven't read "Durruti: The People Armed" is there really stuff he didn't include in "Durruti in the Spanish Revolution" that 800 page monster (one of my favorites)? Paz's got one on the iron column too I think.

I took a look at the Aragon Front board game, that's pretty cool. I plan to do a diorama down the road based on one of the battles of that front, not sure which yet (thinking Seitamo or Osca perhaps) but I'll dig deeper in those comments for research.

I had not seen "Vehiculos Blindados de la Guerra Civil Española" before. There is a ton here and I found a lot of useful stuff already, but I wish the site was better organized. One question of relevance (I didn't see there) are the vehicles in use during the July uprising in Barcelona. I know the assault guards there had been given a few of the armored cars produced by the republic but haven't seen or read about their use that day. I know soldiers, assault guards and artillery used trucks to transport men and equipment that day, but haven't seen or read what particular vehicles they used. (For example, what trucks did the 1st Mountain Artillery Regt use alongside their "animals"). Similarly, I know anarchists and others expropriated civilian cars, would be cool to find some models of common cars of the time, if anyone has leads there.

I've seen a lot of the cnt-made videos you posted, though not the iron colum one, very cool.

Too bad about the French helmets coming later, I already cut the gas masks off these guys, handmade rifles and glued them to the horse-drawn cassions and wagons I put together w flags. I could use them for later war or switch their heads. Thanks for the info!

That is a better version of the photo, there's definitely at least 2 horses and maybe a third hiding directly behind the Assault Guard. I still think I see part of a wagon between the soldier standing with the horse, and the pack of soldiers to the left.

I'll work on getting those maps up, they're pretty great and worth sharing. Also I want to dive deeper into the links on cannons you listed, you're right, it is confusing! So I'll come back when I've researched that a little more too.

Coconuts18 Feb 2019 2:22 a.m. PST

Some more data on the artillery during the rising in Barcelona:

The two mountain artillery regiments in the Spanish Army were equipped with the 105mm Schneider mountain howitzer mod. 1919 (105/11), two groups of 12 guns organised in 3 x 4 gun batteries.

1st Rgt. of Mountain Artillery:

Part of the Barcelona garrison. The regiment, joining the uprising, formed a column based on the 5th battery (Captain Lopez Varela), the 4th (Captain Jose de la Guardia) and another commanded by Captain Jose de la Torre whose mission was to capture the Consejeria de Gobernacion. The column had hardly left the Docks barracks before it was attacked by Assault Guards and civilians. It then suffered an aerial attack which forced two batteries to retire back into the barracks, Cpt. Lopez Varela's battery was left isolated and fought bravely until it ran out of ammunition and the personel was captured.

Beforehand a section of guns had left the barracks in trucks under the command of Captain Sanchez Conteras destined for the Plaza de Espana, which it occupied, shelling the Sans barricades. In the light of the failure of the rising in Barcelona, towards the end of the afternoon of the 19th the troops were obliged to surrender.

(From 'La Artilleria en la Guerra Civil: Material Reglamentario en 1936' Artemio Mortera and Jose Luis Infiesta, Quiron, 1999 p. 39-40)

Odd numbered light artillery regiments were equipped with Schneider rapid fire 7.5 cm mod. 1906 guns (75/28). 12 guns organised in 3 x 4 gun batteries.

7th Rgt. of Light Artillery:

Part of the Barcelona garrison. Joining the rising the regiment organised a column commanded by Captain D
. Guillermo Reinlein including three 75/28s commanded by Captain D. Anastasio Torres Chacon. Its mission was to move to the Plaza de Cataluna, however if was pinned in the upper part of the calle de Claris by the fire of loyal Assault Guards.

(From 'La Artilleria en la Guerra Civil: Material Reglamentario en 1936' Artemio Mortera and Jose Luis Infiesta, Quiron, 1999 p. 53)

Coconuts18 Feb 2019 2:24 a.m. PST

A user on the Spanish 'Grancapitan' forum has provided some very detailed info. on the organisation and equipment of Spanish units in 1936 drawn from official documents. In this thread:


Data on the organisation of mountain artillery regiments:

Regimientos de Artilleria de Montaña

Dos Regimientos encuadrados en las Brigadas de Montaña.El n. 1 de Barcelona en la primera y el n.2 de Vitoria en la segunda.Organizados en base a Plana Mayor y 2 Grupos a 3 Baterias de 4 piezas de 105mm.

-Plana Mayor:

Oficiales: 1 Coronel Jefe.1 Tte.Coronel Jefe de Instruccion.1 Comandante Mayor.3 Capitanes; Ayudante, Cajero, Aux. de Mayoria-Almacen.1 Capitan Medico, 2 Veterinarios.1 Teniente Jefe seccion Destinos.

Suboficiales: 7 Brigadas; 1 Subayudante, 1 Jefe Equipo Topografico, 1 Oficina, 1 Caja, 1 Almacen, 1 Mayoria, 1 Deposito.4 Sargentos; 1 Banda, 1 Oficina, 1 Tren de Combate, 1 Tren de Viveres.

CASE: 1 Armero, 1 Herrador, 1 Ajustador.

Tropa: 6 Cabos; 1 Trompeta, 1 Batidor, 4 Tren de Cuerpo.1 Trompeta, 49 Soldados; 4 Batidores, 11 Conductores Tren de Cuerpo, 2 Conductores autos, 9 asistentes, 8 ordenazas de oficinas, 8 escribientes, 6 lavanderos, 1 electricista.

-2 Grupos:

Plana Mayor: 1 Comandante, 1 Teniente Ayudante.2 Sargentos, 1 Herrador CASE, 5 Cabos, 1 Trompeta, 20 Soldados.

3 Baterias:

1 Capitan, 2 Tenientes. 2 Brigadas; Aux.Compañia y Jefe de Plana Mayor.5 Sargentos; 4 Jefes de Piezas, 1 Plana Mayor. 1 Herrador, 1 Ajustador, 1 Guarnicionero, CASE. 5 Cabos; 1 Furriel, 4 Apuntadores.2 Trompetas.106 Soldados: 1 Batidor, 2 aux.Topografos, 2 Telegrafistas, 36 Sirvientes de pieza, 53 conductores, 3 asistentes, 2 rancheros, 2 ordenanzas, 2 camilleros, 1 barbero, 1 sastre, 1 zapatero.14 Caballos, 54 mulos de carga.

Total Regimiento de Montaña:

32 Oficiales, 57 Suboficiales, 23 CASE, 15 Trompetas, 725 Soldados.

Ganado: 29 Caballos Oficial, 126 Tropa, 8 Caballos Carga, 327 Mulos carga.


Organisation of light artillery regiments:

-Plana Mayor Regimental:

Oficiales: 1 Coronel Jefe.1 Tte.Coronel Jefe de Instruccion.1 Comandante Mayor.3 Capitanes; Ayudante, Cajero, Aux.Mayoria-Almacen.1 Capitan Medico, 2 Veterinarios.1 Teniente Jefe Seccion Destinos.

Suboficiales: 6 Brigadas; 1 Subayudante, 1 Equipo Topografico, 1 Oficina, 1 Mayoria, Jefe Radiotelegrafia, Jefe Telefonia-Telegrafia.2 Sargentos; Banda, Equipo de Observacion.

CASE: 1 Armero, 2 Ajustadores, 1 Sillero, 1 Herrador.

Tropa: 9 Cabos; 1 Batidor, 1 Trompeta, 2 Radiotelegrafia, 2 Telefonia-Telegrafia, 2 Topografos, 1 Equipo de Observacion.1 Trompeta, 52 Soldados; 2 conductores autos, 3 Batidores, 2 Aux.Topografia, 2 guardacaballos, 2 radiotelegrafistas, 10 asistentes, 8 escribientes, 2 carreros, 8 ordenanzas oficinas y almacen, 1 electricista, 6 lavanderos, 6 deposito de armamento.

-2 Grupos:

Plana Mayor: 1 Comandante, 1 Teniente Ayudante.2 Sargentos; Radiotelegrafista, Equipo de observacion y exploracion.1 Herrador CASE.5 Cabos; 2 Topografos, 2 Telefonistas, 1 Botiquin.1 Trompeta.13 Soldados; 2 Aux.Topografos, 2 Telegrafistas, 2 guardacaballos, 1 batidor, 2 carreros, 1 escribiente, 2 asistentes, 1 practicante.

3 Baterias:

1 Capitan, 2 Tenientes.2 Brigadas; Aux.Bateria, Jefe de Plana Mayor.5 Sargentos; 4 Jefes de Pieza, 1 Jefe Armones Municion.8 Cabos; 4 Apuntadores, 1 Furriel, 1 Topografo, 1 Telefonista, 1 Observador.2 Trompetas, 78 Soldados; 1 Batidor, 6 aux.Telefonia-telegrafia, 24 sirvientes, 37 conductores, 3 asistentes, 2 rancheros, 2 camilleros, 1 barbero, 1 sastre, 1 zapatero.18 Caballos monta, 73 caballos tiro.

Total Regimiento:

32 Oficiales, 54 Suboficiales, 25 CASE, 67 Cabos, 15 Trompetas, 546 Soldados.

Ganado: 29 Caballos Oficial, 124 Caballos Tropa, 450 Caballos Tiro.

Coconuts18 Feb 2019 2:34 a.m. PST

Most of the 1908 (70/16) 70mm mountain guns were in the gun platoons of infantry battalions.

Each infantry battalion had a 'support weapons' section as well as a Machine gun company.

The support weapons section had 1 70mm gun and 2 81mm mortars (only one mortar squad in peacetime):

Seccion de Armas de Acompañamiento Batallones:

Plana Mayor, Peloton de Mortero y Peloton de Cañon de Infanteria.

1 Teniente Jefe Seccion
2 Sargentos Jefes de Peloton
3 Cabos; 2 Tiradores y Jefe municionamiento
1 Corneta
19 Soldados; 8 Sirvientes y proveedores, 1 artificiero, 1 asistente, 9 conductores.

Ganado: 1 Caballo Oficial, 9 Mulos.

( En guerra los pelotones de Morteros eran 2)

Each infantry 'seccion' (more like a platoon in British terms) in the infantry battalions had a mortar squad with 2 60mm mortars so an infantry company in peacetime had 4 of these mortars:

-Secciones de Fusileros:


Plana Mayor: Mando y escuadra de Mortero Ligero
2 Pelotones a 3 Escuadras; 2 de Fusileros, 1 de Fusil Ametrallador.

1 Teniente Jefe
2 Sargentos Jefes de Peloton.
7 Cabos Jefes de Escuadra
1 Corneta.
30 Soldados( 4 por Escuadra, 1 Asistente, 1 Enlace)

En tiempo de Guerra la Seccion Contaba con 1 Cabo y 13 Soldados mas.

Coconuts18 Feb 2019 2:44 a.m. PST

Artillery units in July 1936 were still at peacetime strength so only 4 of the six batteries were manned.

Michael Alpert's book 'El Ejercito Popular de la Republica 1936-1939' (Critica 2007) has an appendix reproducing some data about the actual number of soldiers in barracks in July 1936.

The numbering for the artillery units in the IVth division area is wrong but these are the figures it gives:

IV Division: Light Artillery 8, Heavy artillery 2, Mountain artillery 2 Total: 1525 soldiers

Coconuts18 Feb 2019 3:14 a.m. PST

From 'La Caballeria en la Guerra Civil'. Raul Lion, Juan Silvela, Antonio Bellido, Quiron, 1999. p.16-17.

We have already explained that the Barcelona cavalry regiments also joined the rising. They were part of the IInd Brigade of cavalry commanded by general Fernandez Burriel. Both the 3rd Santiago and the 4th Montesa regiments remained in their barracks until 5 am on the morning of the 19th July, the point at which the movement to take control of Barcelona began. The 3rd, commanded by colonel Francisco de la Casa moved towards its first objective, the Gran Via-Diagonal crossroads via the paseo de Gracia ('Cinco de Oros'). As soon as they emerged into the street they were met with heavy fire and suffered their first losses. Just as they were about to reach the aforementioned crossroads they were pinned down and had no alternative but to seek cover in an abandoned convent. They held out there until the afternoon of the 20th.

Montesa, with the support of a section of artillery, was given various different objectives which forced the commander to divide the regiment up by squadrons. This made it easier for the loyal forces to quickly destroy it. Firstly, its troops had to occupy a sector that would ensure liason with the infantry forces whose objective was 'la Telefonica' (Plaza de Espana, Plaza de la Universidad and the Paralelo). The first squadron and the artillery section surrendered in the Plaza de Espana on the 19th. The 2nd squadron in the Plaza de la Universidad surrendered during the afternoon of the same day. Finally the 3rd squadron was destroyed at the same time at the crossroads of the calle Marques de Duero/calle San Pablo as it marched towards the Paralelo, despite having been joined by a battery from the 1st mountain artillery regiment.

(I am actually selling my copy of this book at the moment, but it is part of a larger lot of 6 other SCW books on the Spanish site todocoleccion, actually a good source for out of print Spanish books on the Civil War usually at reasonable prices)

Coconuts18 Feb 2019 3:22 a.m. PST

Official TOE of a cavalry brigade, from the Grancapitan forum source mentioned above:

Cuartel General de Brigada:

1 General de Brigada.2 Comandantes; Ayudante y Estado Mayor.1 Cabo, 10 Soldados.7 caballos Monta, 4 de tiro.

-2 Regimientos de Sables:

Formados por Plana Mayor, 2 Grupos a 2 Escuadrones de Sables, y Escuadron de Armas Automaticas.

Plana Mayor Regimental:

Oficiales: 1 Coronel Jefe, 1 Tte.Coronel segundo Jefe.1 Comandante Mayor.4 Capitanes; Ayudante, Cajero, Almacen, Aux.Mayoria.1 Capitan Medico, 2 Veterinarios.1 Teniente seccion destinos.

Suboficiales: 1 Subayudante.5 Sargentos; Oficina , Banda, Mayoria, Almacen, Deposito.

CASE: 2 Herradores, 1 Guarnicionero.

Tropa: 5 Cabos; Batidor , Trompeta, 3 Deposito.38 Soldados; 1 Motorista, 8 escribientes, 8 ordenanzas oficinas, 2 carreros, 10 asistentes, 2 enlaces, 6 lavanderos, 1 electricista, 1 conductor.

2 Grupos a 2 Escuadrones Sables:

Plana Mayor Grupo: 1 Comandante, 1 Teniente Ayudante.4 Soldados; 1 Practicante, 1 escribiente, 2 asistentes.

2 Escuadrones de Sables a 3 Secciones de 3 Escuadras:

1 Capitan Jefe Escuadron.3 Tenientes Jefes de Seccion.1 Brigada Aux.Escuadron.3 Sargentos Subjefes de Seccion.2 Herradores.11 Cabos; 2 en Plana Mayor, 9 Jefes de Escuadra.3 Trompetas.18 Soldados desmontados; 3 Ciclistas, 1 Barbero, 3 carreros, 1 sastre, 3 rancheros, 1 escribiente, 4 asistentes, 2 camilleros. 63 Soldados Montados: 1 enlace, 2 explosivos, 60 en las secciones.

Escuadron de Armas Automaticas.Plana Mayor y 5 Secciones; 2 de Ametralladoras, 2 de Fusiles ametralladores, 1 de morteros ligeros.

Plana Mayor Escuadron: 1 Capitan, 1 Brigada auxiliar.2 Herradores. 2 Cabops.1 Trompeta.26 Soldados;1 Telemetrista, 3 observadores, 2 telegrafistas opticos, 2 enlaces, 2 carreros, 1 barbero, 1 sastre, 1 escribiente, 3 rancheros, 6 asistentes, 4 camilleros.

2 secciones de Ametralladoras a 4 Maquinas: 1 Teniente Jefe Seccion, 2 Sargentos Jefes de Peloton, 5 Cabos; 4 Jefes de Maquina, 1 Jefe de Guardacaballos, 21 Soldados.

2 Secciones de 6 Fusiles Ametralladores: 1 Teniente Jefe, 1 Sargento Subjefe, 6 Cabos, 19 Soldados.

1 Seccion de 2 Morteros Ligeros: 1 Teniente, 1 Sargento, 2 Cabos, 8 Soldados.

Total Regimiento:

39 Oficiales, 30 Suboficiales, 14 CASE, 73 Cabos, 13 Trompetas, 486 Soldados.

Ganado: 492 caballos de monta, 84 caballos de carga y tiro.

Coconuts18 Feb 2019 3:27 a.m. PST

According to the information in Alpert (2007), these were the troops actually in barracks for the cavalry in July 1936:

IV Division: Regiments 3 & 4 800 men.

Coconuts18 Feb 2019 3:34 a.m. PST

I'll work on getting those maps up, they're pretty great and worth sharing. Also I want to dive deeper into the links on cannons you listed, you're right, it is confusing! So I'll come back when I've researched that a little more too.

If your interest is focused on July 1936 it is a little simpler as a lot of the foreign non-standard guns didn't appear until later in the war. Early on it is all pieces that were officially in service or were held in the artillery stores of the Spanish army.

Mike O18 Feb 2019 11:01 a.m. PST

Excellent stuff, Coconuts, thanks. That 'La Caballeria en la Guerra Civil' book from Quiron is the one I remember Guinea Hobbies once carried. Interesting how there's contradictory information on the numbering of regiments in different sources. Whilst that has the 3rd Santiago and 4th Montesa cavalry regts, Altes de la Guerra Civil a Catalunya and Ultima Cruzada has them numbered 9th and 10th respectively (Cruzada has the 3rd Calatrava cav based in Salamanca and 4th España based in Burgos). Similar conflicting numbering for the infantry regts.

One question of relevance (I didn't see there) are the vehicles in use during the July uprising in Barcelona. I know the assault guards there had been given a few of the armored cars produced by the republic but haven't seen or read about their use that day. I know soldiers, assault guards and artillery used trucks to transport men and equipment that day, but haven't seen or read what particular vehicles they used. (For example, what trucks did the 1st Mountain Artillery Regt use alongside their "animals"). Similarly, I know anarchists and others expropriated civilian cars, would be cool to find some models of common cars of the time, if anyone has leads there.

Difficult to tell particlar truck makes from photos (at least for me – many look much the same!) but it seems the Ford AA truck produced since 1929 by Ford Motor Ibérica, SA was widespread along with the Hispano-Suiza 40/50 and 30/40.

They were issued with Bilbao A/Cs but I haven't found any confirmed mention or photo of their use on that day so far.

The caption to this photo claims it was taken in Barcelona but elsewhere I've seen it captioned as Madrid. Either way the armed workers in civilian clothes suggests at the time of the coup


This gives the organisation for the Asaltos at the time of the coup which I've run through a translator:

Squad : 7 guards under a corporal.
Platoon : 3 squads plus an NCO; They also have a machine gun (Hotchkiss M1914), an open truck with 25 seats* and smoke grenades.
Section : 3 platoons .
Company : 3 sections under an officer.
Grupo : formed by 3 rifle companies and one called the Specialist Company. This company had three sections: one of mortars, another of machine guns and the motorized section with light cars, motorcycles, vans and coaches, ambulances and Bilbao A/Cs.

…in 1936 the number of members of the Security and Assault Corps was 17,660: 450 chiefs and officers, 543 NCOs and
16,667 guards, of whom about 8,000 belonged to the Security section and the rest to Assault. For those dates the body
had 50 companies distributed in 16 Grupos: Madrid ( 1st , 2nd and 3rd ), Bilbao ( 4th ), Seville ( 5th ), Valencia ( 6th ), Zaragoza ( 7th ), La Coruña ( 8th ), Málaga ( 9th ), Oviedo ( 10th ), Badajoz ( 11th ), Valladolid ( 12th ), Murcia ( 13th ) and Barcelona ( 14th , 15th and 16th ).

*Camioneta Hispano-Suiza




One group of participants not mentioned yet are the Catalan police known as the Mossos d'Esquadra (aka Mozos de Esquadra). As a body they seem to have remained loyal to the Republic and are known to have numbered around 300 at the time of the coup though how many were in Barcelona I don't know.

They can be identified by their distinctive uniform with fancy-trimmed short jacket.

Mossos D'Esquadra stationed at the Palau de la Generalitat on July 19




Makhno18, I think the figure off to the left next to the dead horses in your other thread MIGHT be a Mosso rather than an Asalto although the Barricades book mentions the latter unbuttoning their smart blue tunics or removing them compltely when loyal to the Republic to distinguish themselves from rebel Asaltos.

Coconuts19 Feb 2019 7:12 a.m. PST


Interesting how there's contradictory information on the numbering of regiments in different sources. Whilst that has the 3rd Santiago and 4th Montesa cavalry regts, Altes de la Guerra Civil a Catalunya and Ultima Cruzada has them numbered 9th and 10th respectively (Cruzada has the 3rd Calatrava cav based in Salamanca and 4th España based in Burgos). Similar conflicting numbering for the infantry regts.

I think this might explain it, I found the reference on one of the Spanish cavalry wiki pages:


Por OC de 23 de abril de 1936 se cambia la numeración de los regimientos y brigadas para que coincida con su despliegue territorial, que se ve igualmente alterado.

The numbering of the cavalry regiments was changed in late April 1936, Montesa (old 10) and Santiago (old 9) changed to 3 and 4.

I bet the same thing happened with the infantry regiment numbers and designations.

Makhno191820 Feb 2019 6:05 a.m. PST

Wow Thanks guys, it's like xmas, this thread is really heating up. I appreciate the contributions Coconut and Mike. Really useful stuff!

So based on your research I'm looking now for some trucks and 105mm Schneider mountain howitzer mod. 1919 (105/11) mountain guns, though not finding much as usual.

For the Schneider 105, closest ive found is from irregular: link
Gun Type Forty-Five
Japanese type 90 Osaka/Schneider divisional field howitzer 105mm 1931 – 1945. Unfortunately no photo w the product, think it's comparable?

Minairons has a Hispano-Suiza but it's converted into an armored car. It's very cool but not what im lookong for.

For the Ford aa, Found this on eBay, maybe I could just leave the bed cap off.
Might explore the line more in general, haven't dug too deep into vehicles outside of the places I've found figures (minairons, irregular, bum, Caesar etc).

As I said before, ill get some maps up, plus some info from the most recent book I'm reading, including nationalist militia involved in the rising attempt, both Carlist and Falange

Mike O20 Feb 2019 11:29 a.m. PST

So based on your research I'm looking now for some trucks and 105mm Schneider mountain howitzer mod. 1919 (105/11) mountain guns, though not finding much as usual..

My own nominees for "looks-close-enough-for-gaming-purposes" are the following:
*award ceremony drumroll*

For the part of 105mm M19; the HaT 10cm Feldhaubitze M.14
(those curved shield sections over the wheels…)

For the part of 70/16 mod1908; the Hat Skoda 75mm Mountain Gun
(remove the shield or cut the slits and reposition it)

For the part of Ford AA truck we have its very own twin brother the Russian Gaz AA truck (licensed copy)
(lots of manufacturers)

I also found a 1/25 scale print-it-yourself card model of the Gaz AA somewhere which I deleted all the fussy detail.
and resized to 1/72

(I also use the bigger Russian 3-ton Zis-5s for their generic early 30s truck-ness)

Those HaT guns are great value too and they have some very useful crew figures especially with headswaps. My favourite are the WW1 British in shirtsleeves and puttees




Makhno191821 Feb 2019 11:35 a.m. PST

As promised heres a link to some maps from "Altes de la Guerra Civil a Catalunya" by Victor Hurtado, Antoni Segura, Joan Villarroya i Font:

Unfortunately i cant get them to just display on the site, you have to click the links, and they'll make more sense if you print them out and put them next to each other, most of these are 2-page maps at 1 page per file.

I have some more maps on my comp I could add if requested: a few large-view maps of Aragon Front, some more detailed of specific sieges and battles, one or two from May 37, as well as info on leadership and loyalties of various units in Catalunya, movements of assault guards on the 19th etc. Really a great book, check it out if you can.

Coconuts, thats really interesting about the regiments having their numbers changed. I imagine that might have been a result of Manuel Azaña's reform legislation of April 4th?

Mike I really appreciate your nominees haha. I was super excited about the HaT 10cm Feldhaubitze M.14, but its out of stock everywhere. Even had my local hobby shop contact HaT and theyre out of them too. Ill definitely grab a Skoda set and a few GAZs. I might try my hand at printing, what do you recommend, card stock? Ill have to get more ink for the old printer but looks like a money-saver for sure. Also, the British crew looks great, and will give me a reason to learn headswapping. Thanks again for all the ideas. One of these days i'll actually complete something and post it here.

Mike O21 Feb 2019 1:27 p.m. PST

Thanks for the great maps! I'd found a few online recently but none anywhere as detailed as the Plaza de Catalunya ones.

Ah, shame about 10cm Feldhaubitze M.14. The way HaT and many other plastic fig makers operate is they'll produce a large initial batch and then wait until it goes out of stock everywhere before considering whether it was popular enough to do a new production run – can take a couple of years.

Good news from their forum:

I missed that initially and put a request in their suggestion thread (can't hurt to reinforce it though…)

There's some online guides to making cardstock models I'll find for next time.

Makhno191821 Feb 2019 1:34 p.m. PST

Thats funny, i just did the exact same thing and I saw someone else posted right before me asking for the same stuff ;-)
Good news it's in the works, I'll keep an eye on that and focus elsewhere in the meantime. Gotta find me some vehicles. Thanks!

Mike O22 Feb 2019 4:57 a.m. PST

Hahaha I thought you were a bit quick off the mark!

Another thought – here is the HaT request thread for items they already have in the planning stage.


I've already put in requests for WW1 Russian cavalry and cossacks for RCW use but I notice they also have a WW1/2 Universal Limber which has been in development forever – much more suitable than Napoleonic I would think although it only seems to be a 4 horse team (?)


Makhno191824 Feb 2019 11:09 a.m. PST

Some more notes on Placa Catalunya, this time from "el ejercito del 19 de julio en cataluña: tres generales frente a frente: Goded, Llano de la Encomienda, Aranguren" by Felio A. VILARRUBIAS.
This is translated from Spanish via google. This source has Badajoz as both # 10 and 13. I was going to include the Spanish but it'd be really long, let me know if anyone wants to see the original Spanish for any particular passage. This author is certainly no Abel Paz… lots of praise for Falangists and etc, but the plus side is he has detailed info on Carlist and Falange forces, such as the following, which will be relevant in the passages below:

"The three centuries that made up the Spanish Falange Flag (Bandera de Falange -note Makhno1918) of the J.O.N.S. created in Barcelona – as we have remembered, the Blue, under the command of José Fernández Ramírez, the Yellow, which José Noya Ainsa sent, shot … in Montjuic-and the Red, that Fernando Garcia-Teresa de la Loma will send … besides the SEU captained by José Maria Guitart with a strong guiding picture of which Pedro Armenteros would be a very prominent figure, they received orders to join the Army through Captain Solano Latorre himself"

"Between four and four thirty in the morning, two columns of the Infentaría Badajoz regiment number 10 would come out of that barracks, one under the command of Captain Enrique López Belda, destined to reinforce the headquarters of the Fourth Organic Division – that is, the former and current General Captaincy of Catalonia, on Paseo de Colón – and, another, commanded by Commander José López-Amor Jiménez, which should occupy Plaza Cataluña and, in this, especially, the Telefónica building.

The soldiers carried nine hours of uninterrupted combat, with attacks even body to body, and without other trenches, in a plaza in Catalonia burning with hatred, than the tree tree basins, the public benches, the portals of stairs, and the improvised barricades of cars, formed in the course of the fight with vehicles captured in combat or with the bodies of horses.

The first of the raised columns that opened march on the city was constituted by forces of the Infantry Regiment of Badajoz number 13, commanded – as already indicated – by Commander López-Amor and to which some ninety-two joined militants of Falange Espannola de las JONS, hasty synthesis of their first Barcelona bandera; there were their leaders of the centuria, Fernández Ramírez, García Teresa and Noya Ainsa, the founders and former triumvirates Luys Santa Marina, Luis Fontes de Albornoz and José María Poblador Alvarez, the founders of the S.E.U. Barcelona, Jorge Carreras Ribas, and Pedro de Armenteros Urbano and the one who was to be the first commander of a combat unit of Catalans in the national zone, Santiago Martín Busutil, killed in combat on the Burgos front.

The volunteers were placed under the command of the captain of the same regiment, Julio Visconti Martínez and lieutenants José González Fleitas, Artuto Gotarredona Castellano and Ramiro Vizán Revilla – who provided uniforms and facilitated the armament to such volunteers – these reinforcements were reason for hope for the committed commanders of the Regiment.

The company of Captain López Belda, with the lieutenant Tomás Manrique Puras, and the alféreces José Ojeda Teviño and Pablo Casterad Ramón; to this unit destined, as it was indicated to reinforce the services of the headquarters of the Fourth Division organizes – but, in fact, to join the uprising there – a section of about thirty Falangists of the 'Yellow' century was added. Following the second column of the same Regiment, which was to occupy the Plaza de Cataluña and in this the Telefónica building, commanded by the commander José Lopez-Amor Jiménez; Captain Oller Gil was his second boss, Lieutenant José Seco Martínez acted as assistant, and Lieutenant Bartolomé Borrás Ramón was in charge of the liaison section; they were part of a rifle company under the command of Captain Juan Ruiz Hernández, with the lieutenants Alfonso Oliveda Medrano, José Montua Fortuny, and Plácido Navarro Pallejá; a machine-gun company, headed by Captain Mercader – already quoted--, with Lieutenants Ricardo Alea Labra and Recaredo García Sopena; does accompanying pieces, sent by Lieutenant Ernesto Quevedo Rasilla,a section of mortars, with a rifle company with Captain Visconti, and Lieutenants Gonzalez Fleitas, Gotarrendona and Vizán.

After a few moments, and after leaving a section of Falangists – with his century-old boss Fernández Ramírez – incorporated to the forces that occupied the plaza of the University, López-Amor arranged for the column to resume the march towards its objective of Plaza Cataluña. Shortly afterwards, in the middle of Gran Vía, he suffered an unexpected attack, in charge of Asalto lairs supported by groups of militiamen, anarcho-syndicalists, the column was deployed across the aforementioned avenue to repel aggression, which made way of parliament; For their part, the Assault guards adopted an attitude of submission to the Army forces, a ruse that would decide the tragedy of that column. Lopez-Amor ingenuously accepted the offer, much more when the officer who commanded the Assault guards had exclaimed before his people: "Comrades, let's go together with the Army!

That was a trap hatched against the forces commanded by Commander Lopez-Amor, to catch them among several fires; in fact, the militia grouped together with the guards, so that when they entered the Plaza de Cataluña, the column was surrounded at its strategic points by both guards and countrymen armed with rifles.

Commander Lopez-Amor immediately ordered his soldiers to ask for documentation to all persons circulating in the square, and it was found that the vast majority of them showed the CNT card. In this task, as in the practice of some arrests, precious time was lost. Suspended soon after this confused activated, the commander went to the Telefonica building, accompanied by Captain Mercador, escorted by both platoons of soldiers and Falangists; already in the interior of the building – what virtually, supposed the occupation of the first objective of the column--, ordered to Mr. Alcaraz and Sigüenza, directors of the power station, that they cut the telephone communications with the Generalitat. Soon, the Assault guards who guarded the building, prepared to reject the presence of the military with arms.

The captain who commanded those guards ordered shots of intimidation; and, for his part, commander López-Amor ordered his soldiers to withdraw, at the same time that he indicated to Lieutenant Quevedo without any loss of time, bombing the building with his escort guns ---- of 7.5-, as It was done, although no real damage to the enemy, since the pieces began to be harassed from the rooftops, as a result of which Lieutenant Gotarredona was wounded, and the Falangist Joaquín Echevarría, chief of squad in the "yellow" century of García Teresa.

The Assault guards, and the CNT-FAI militiamen, with good weapons, opened fire incessantly on the hostile military forces, located in the center of the square, in the open, from the access roads of Fontanella, Puerta del Angel , Rambla de Canaletas y Pelayo; In the intense and continuous shooting of machine guns between the two sides, Commander López-Amor was wounded in the leg – one of the wounds had a certain importance – and he had to go to the emergency kit, installed in the neighboring Casino Militar.

Upon returning to his command post, after healing, the commander was surprised by a mob of Assault guards and militiamen; that pounced on him; He tried to defend himself with the firing of his pistol, but, dominated by force, he was forced to board a car that waited next to the sidewalk, in front of the Military Casino itself, and taken prisoner to the General Commissariat of Public Order.

This same action they tried to repeat with Captain Pedro Mercader Bofill, but before the tenacious resistance of this one a captain of the Assault Guard shot him several shots and shot him down, mortally wounded. According to Manuel Cruells (8); this last event happened at the same time as the kidnapping of commander López-Amor, and the murder of Captain Mercader was the work of guards under the command of sergeant Manuel López León, and Corporal Antonio Pérez Suárez, of the 5th company of the Security group .

With the kidnapping of Commander Lopez-Amor and the murder of Captain Mercader, the column was divided into resistance groups, located at different points in the Plaza de Cataluña. The operation was organized by Captain Don Luis Oller Gil, who had been seriously wounded; nevertheless, he acted as a judge and had assumed responsibility for the command.

In those dramatic circumstances, a new surprise from the enemy aggravated the permanence of the forces uncovered: they had just broken into the square, through the tunnels of the Metro of the square itself, as of the immediate streets of Pelayo, Vergara and Ronda de University, two companies of the Assault Corps, belonging to the 12th Group, commanded by Commander Gómez, Captains Arco and Gutiérrez, with whose presence the combats hardened; the fact determined that the captain Oller Gil, with the lieutenants González Fleitas, Borrás, Alea, García Sopena and Muntúa, retreated towards the Hotel Colón; that they occupied with remains of their companies and with Falangists of the "Red" century; They stationed machine guns on the roofs and balconies of that building, and thus resisted the attacks of the Assault guards, and the overwhelming mass of militiamen who fought there with the ferocity of Lavantine anarchism, under the heat of a hot summer. For its part, the company of Captain Visconti occupies the "Maison Dorée", the restaurant and cafe of so many hot stories located next to the Ronda de la Universidad. In the retreat to the Hotol Colon, Lieutenant Hernandez Brioso, who was trying to remove a machine gun, was wounded to such an extent that he died at the postsociety, and another group of combatants under the command of Captain Juan Ruiz Hernández, with lieutenants Oliveda and Navarra, occupied the Military casino. To this group was added the Lieutenant of Assault Eduardo Sanféliz of the staff of Oviedo who wanted in a heroic act to join the fate of his comrades-in-arms. Eduardo Sanféliz was brother of the lieutenant colonel of E.M. Mr. Adalberto, added to the Cuerta Organic division; both brothers were killed between the months of September-October following by the Antifascist Militias.

From the high balconies of the Casino was contemplated the square covered with corpses of combatants, armament and equipment of escort, destroyed cars and in the center the corpses, of the cavalries of transport of the pieces, already busted, whose pestilent and depressing stench gave the real tone of the catastrophe. The artillery pieces fell into the hands of the enemy.

In this desperate military situation in Plaza Catalunya, they continued to fight until four in the afternoon in the chimerical waiting for reinforcements that no longer existed, until the 19 th Column of the Civil Guard, reinforced by the Intendancy company, appeared. Commander Antonio Sanz Neira and commanded by Colonel Escobar, coming from the Plaza de la Universidad, putting, with his attitude, an end to the fierce resistance that the Army and that nucleus of volunteers have for the heterogeneous forces of the Popular Front.

The soldiers did not take long to break the discipline and get lost in the asphalt of the capital in the middle of fists held high and shouts of "We're going home." The dramatic war odyssey of that handful of patriots and soldiers was over. For the survivors, the ordeal of persecution began, the great revenge of the second Republic – socialist and sectarian -; The Popular Courts."

Also, Mike O, this source agrees with you on the 300 Mozos de Escuadra in Barcelona, in the list of forces active that day:
"two thousand six hundred civilian guards, one thousand nine hundred and eighty guards of the Security and Assault Corps, four hundred carabineros, three hundred Mozos de Escuadra, and the two hundred soldiers of a company of the Fourth Intendancy Group, sent by the head of that division, the commander Antonio Sanz Neira, exalted enemy of the uprising."

Lastly, check out Minairons awesome vote-for-it page, which has as candidates:
99GEG006 : SCHNEIDER 105/11 GUN
99GEG005 : SCHNEIDER 70/16 GUN
and these trucks:


lastly lastly, saw they already sell this 155, which has a curved shield and we might be able to modify to be the 105? Though its out of stock on their site.
99GEV019 : ZIS-5 TRUCK

Mike O25 Feb 2019 3:16 p.m. PST

Thanks for more excellent information coming from the military coup perspective! Interesting about the falangists – especially how the Badajoz regt "provided uniforms and facilitated the armament to such volunteers". So would they just appear as army regulars or would they have falangist flags, insignia and their blue shirts? Don't see any mention of Carlist traditionalist/monarchist militias on that day?

Some people have given up waiting for the HaT WW1 Limber and are using ACW limbers which frankly differ very little:

Then there's the old Airfix WW1 set

Revell WW2 German Artillery has a limber that is probably too specific to the gun…but everything else about this is useful to the SCW. Outriders and mounted officer that can be used as cavalry…great crew…both with conversion. Loads of useful accessories. The 105mm guns were supplied by Hitler to the Nationalists

As promised – Card/paper models

One of best sources was Wayne McCullough's site that seems to have gone but Wayback Machine actually worked for me this time

Scroll down for construction techniques – 145 gsm/65lb recommended if printing direct to cardstock but also many print to standard paper and use spray adhesive to stick to thick cardboard especially for buildings.

An alternative set of paper/card instructions and tools:

Lots of free card-models on the Landships site useful for the SCW:


Especially Wayne McCullough, CT Ertz, Pablo Martin, Alexander Bondar and Jesus M Lopez Bea

Makhno191825 Feb 2019 9:28 p.m. PST

Well… I mentioned the Vilarrubias book was in Spanish, which I cant really read beyond anarchist and other worker slogans, and i had it on loan from the library. I focused on translating the early section on the Badajoz Infantry and ran out of time before the book was due! So I'm sure there's much more on Carlists and others, I'll take it out again one day. I just included my notes on Placa Catalunya, and it doesnt appear the Carlists fought there.

But in the early sections of the book which I was able to get through, there was some indeed Requetes info. I've read of their participation elsewhere too, though can't remember where right now. The Carlists were ordered to the Montesa barracks (to arrive at 4am), 300 making it there, others stopped by workers barricades en route, and their main action was defending that barracks. The source which escapes me claimed many slipped away during the night the night of the 19th, encouraged to leave by the army, before the barracks fell the next day.

Vilarrubias writes that they were "incorporados sus miembros al 2 escuadrón del Regimiento de Caballería de Montesa\Requetés section… incorporating its members to the 2 squadron of the Montesa Cavalry Regiment. "

A day or so earlier, "In the middle of the afternoon the regional head of the Catalonian requeté José Ma Conill received in the Carlist Circle of the Rambla de Cataluña n 8, the Order of the Uprising in a sealed envelope that Captain Lopez Varela delivered to the Infantry Captain José Solano Latorre…to head to the barracks (San Andres y Tarragonda) at 4am
"The envelopes containing the order, were of different colors, so for the Requeté the red; for the blue phalanx (falange), etc., strategy …provided for incorporations of civilians in the following proportion: Free Trade Union, 200 men; Spanish Falange, ro + 45 + 34; Spanish Renovation 12; JAP (Youth of Gil Robles) 8; Communion Traditionalists 500 in active and 1500 in reserve."

As for the uniforms the falangists wore, the best clue I've seen came at the end of the Bajadoz/Placa Catalunya section in Vilarrubias's book entitled "Un "kamikaze" a la Española" about a Falangist in the besieged Casino Militar who, when it was clear they were doomed, convinced the commanders to left him don an army uniform, attempt to escape with grenades, and…well heres the google translation:

"To Pedro Sáez Capal – bravo and hard – he came up with a strategy he exposed to Captain Oller Gil: he would pretend to escape from the Military Casino, with his soldier's uniform, he would rifle himself and a knapsack full of hand grenades and he would go to the Civil Guard who surrounded the building to tell them to move urgently to the General Commissariat of Public Order, in order to personally inform President Companys something very important for the course of the fight in Barcelona.

In principle, the proposal of Pedro Sáez Capel did not have much good reception among the commanders of the forces that occupied the Military Casino, but as the conditions of resistance of this increasingly scarce, and the news broadcast by the radio were totally pessimistic for The rebels, after much controversy, the heads of the already located redoubt resolved to authorize the attempt.

Pedro Sáez left, then in his soldier's uniform, his rifle, his bag, went to the neighbor building of the Telephone and presented himself to the Civil Guard as a fugitive who wanted to communicate something very important, relative to what was happening in the Military Casino , to President Companys, but only to him. In a car, guarded by a non-commissioned officer and several civilian guards, he was transferred to the Vía Layetana mansion, where he was quickly called to the presence of the president of the Generalitat who was surrounded by other leaders, but he barely had time to realize where he was and of the people who were there: he felt a strong blow to the head and fell faint: when he came to himself, he was handcuffed, his military jacket was removed, and he wore his blue shirt with the five red arrows on his chest. Apparently, someone had met him and betrayed him. The Falangist kamikaze could not fulfill his plan … He was tried by a People's Court – he was defended by his brother Francisco, also a Falangist and member of the Radical Republican Party – and spent all his time in prison."

So, that he woke up in his blue shirt, and that he had consciously put on the army uniform before hand, leads me to believe that the army had either outfitted the Falangists in blue shirts, that some percentage either didn't accept the army uniforms or there weren't enough, or that the author had meant something else that we lost in translation. In any case, unless another source sheds more light, I'm going to paint my Falangists blue in this diorama.

I appreciate the tutorials on printing vehicles! Ill dig into those when I get the ink. I'm also moving steadily through your homework assignments ;-) I read La Ultima Cruzada (got a free scribd trial, was thrilled to see it there, great source and super quick read), was able to download Jose Maria Bueno's pamphlet as a PDF from there as well, and today requested "La Guerra Civil y sus Banderas 1936-1939" through the library. Also, I just ordered the Austrian artillery crew (the British seem out of stock everywhere too, damnit) as well as BUM's Siege of Madrid set that comes with a truck, alongside militia who I dont think I'll ever tire of painting. I'll consider these limber suggestions to go with my new Austrian crew and some Minairons helmeted heads for my next purchase. Thanks my friend!

Mike O20 May 2019 9:38 a.m. PST

Hi Makhno, just to note that the HaT 10cm Feldhaubitze M.14, Skoda 75mm Mtn Gun and various 20thC artillery crews are back in stock – least here in Britain!:


Makhno191821 May 2019 4:03 a.m. PST

Thanks Mike! I had already purchased the Skoda and slitted and curved the shields. They came out somewhat like the photos above of the 105mm Schneider M19 Mountain Howitzer. I also bought the hat Austrian artillery crew, turned their hats into caps (some of the officers with raised arms became Falangists saluting), and got a handful of trucks and a couple cars. I also built a Telefonica out of wood and MH, im excited to share some progress when I get closer to completion. Trying to get my hands on some more civilians/un or barely-armed workers to add to the mob rushing the building. Irregular has some unarmed guys with no headgear, and I'm eying the capless Irish citizens from RH models (anyone seen these? Theres no picture). Anyone know of other civilians that look good in a 1930s Spanish city? In the meantime, I'll have to see what of these HAT items came into stock here across your pond 😁.

Mike O21 May 2019 2:04 p.m. PST

Good to hear of your progress! A suggestion for the civilians are some of the Caesar WW2 Partisans and Resistance sets although there are a lot of SMGs that should probably be replaced by rifles:


Makhno191821 May 2019 7:11 p.m. PST

Thanks for the suggestion! I already have those both, however. I also included a few red box, boxer rebellion civilians (the rest I'm saving for a future Magonista project).

Makhno191808 Jun 2019 12:36 p.m. PST

Here's a new question regarding forces at Barcelona. This photo:


Who are they?
The Roger Viollet website's caption reads "Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). Distribution of ammunitions to Republican soldiers. Barcelona (Spain), July 1936."

The caption in Osprey's "Men-at-Arms: The Spanish Civil War 1936–39 (1) Nationalist Forces" claims these are nationalist men:
"Barcelona, 1936: rebel troops in their shirtsleeves, handing around bandoliers of ammunition clips for their M1893 rifles. Note the ‘granadero' trousers, and the piping and tassel on the ‘gorrillo' sidecap. (Roger-Viollet)"

That they cite Roger-Viollet leads me to imagine that Osprey mis-identified them, though they don't look "Republican" (at least for that particular day) to me. But if anyone knows more I'd love to learn where their loyalties were, and even better, what unit they're from or the exact location of the photo.

Mike O26 Aug 2019 12:47 p.m. PST

Trying to get my hands on some more civilians/un or barely-armed workers to add to the mob rushing the building. Irregular has some unarmed guys with no headgear, and I'm eying the capless Irish citizens from RH models (anyone seen these? Theres no picture).

By way of an update on this, Strelets recently showed photos of the masters for their upcoming Boer Infantry which it strikes me would make great conversion material for SCW armed civilians and militia with head-swaps. Nicely posed for your ongoing Barcelona coup project I think.



Forgot to mention before that the Dapol Railway Workers also have conversion potential too.


Makhno191827 Aug 2019 5:31 a.m. PST

Oh cool thanks Mike! I immediately bought the rail workers on ebay. Looks like they'll also be good for workers' artillary and entrenchment teams!

As for the strelets set, any clue when theyll be ready for sale? Looks great for armed workers, but also for the Thälmann Battalion for Madrid and Magonistas in Baja im planning for the near future.

Makhno191827 Aug 2019 5:49 a.m. PST

Ps, i did get some RH models irish citizens and they all looked the same, mostly like me (lol). Im using one of them (with the shortest/least curly hair) as a Durruti command figure, works well as theyre a little taller than the rest of my figures and Durruti was a big guy, and theres decent likeness with the right paint.

Another update, i work as a handyman/odd jobber. Had a customer whose in a dispute with a neighbor over a big shed he wants to build on her property line, she asked if i know anyone who builds scale models. I showed her a picture of my Telefonica in progress and she hired me for the gig. Never thought this hobby would do anythingbut lose me money! Neither did my wife, so i had to rub it in a little.

Mike O27 Aug 2019 1:45 p.m. PST

Brilliant to hear about your model shed commission – well done!

Another great thing about this Boer set is they use the Mauser M1895 rifle which is outwardly virtually identical to the Spanish Army licensed copy Mauser based on the M1893.

Strelets are by far currently the most prolific 1/72 scale plastic producer and their turnover is much faster than anyone else too. Often the final product is in the stores 3-6 months after masters are shown rather than years in the case of other companies.

Only word of caution is that, although recently they've been showing beautiful masters after years of average sculpting, the final product often lacks the quality of said masters. They seem to use very shallow molds leading to somewhat flat, 2D poses in many cases and the sharpness of detail is often lost too. Some have pleaded with them to concentrate on quality rather than quantity – more discussion on Benno's:

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